A Review on Nanotech Microchip for Diabtes Mellitus

International Journal of Novel Trends in Pharmaceutical Sciences,2016,6,1,6-9.
Published:February 2016
Type:Review Article
Authors:
Author(s) affiliations:

K. Harikumar*, Pooja Mongar, N. Priyanka, Zepa Thubten, Tshering Dema Blon

Sri Venkateswara College of Pharmacy, RVS Nagar, Chittoor-517127, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is an metabolic disorder with multiple etiology characterized by hyperglycemia, disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism and resulting from inadequate insulin secretion, inadequate insulin supply and both. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, whereas Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Previously, the onset of these two separate diseases was easily distinguished, with children being most at risk for T1D and T2D occurring in overweight adults. However, the dramatic rise in obesity, coupled with the notable increase in T1D, has created a large overlap in these previously discrete patient populations. Delayed diagnosis of T1D can result in severe illness or death especially chronic complication like nephropathy, neuropathy, high blood pressure, stroke, gastroparesis, diabetic keto acidosis (DKA), foot, eye and skin complications and rapid diagnosis of T1D is critical for the efficacy of emerging therapies. However, attempts to apply next-generation platforms have been unsuccessful for detecting diabetes biomarkers. The plasmonic gold microchip for near-infrared fluorescence–enhanced (NIR-FE) detection of islet cell–targeting autoantibodies. These microchips are now using when compare to RIA and ELISA for detection of diabetes and that to microchips are less expensive and less time consuming with early detection.

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Characteristic feature of type 1 and 2 diabetes