Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine condition that affects approximately 5% to 10% of women in the reproductive age group (12–45 years old). Women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant due to hormone imbalances that cause or result from altered development of ovarian follicles. One such imbalance is high blood levels of androgens, which can come from both the ovaries and adrenal gland. Other organ systems that are affected by PCOS include the pancreas, liver, muscle, blood vasculature and fat. Women with PCOS often present with infertility, obesity, and clinical features of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism, acne, and alopecia. It is important to understand that PCOS is a syndrome, not a disease, reflecting multiple potential etiologies with variable clinical expression of these and other features in adolescents and adults with this syndrome. PCOS treatments must be directed at addressing the immediate goals of patients and preventing short- and long-term complications. By addressing these complications and making lifestyle changes that are supported by appropriate pharmacologic interventions with continuous surveillance, patients’ quality of life can be improved.